Your body mass index (BMI) is calculated based on your height and weight. It has been historically used to gauge how healthy a person is because it helps to determine if you are overweight or within the recommended range for your height and gender. For years, doctors and insurance companies have relied on a person's BMI as an indicator of their overall health. The presumption has been that if a person falls in the overweight category for BMI, then they are also unhealthy. New evidence now suggests that this is not always the case and can be a sloppy way of measuring someone's health. In fact, new research shows that more than half of U.S. adults who are technically overweight on the BMI scale are actually quite healthy.
A new study confirms that weight lost after undergoing weight-loss surgery appears to remain off for 10 years or longer.
The study's conclusions suggest people interested in some kind of bariatric surgery can expect to lose a significant amount of weight and be able to keep it off for an extended period of time.
Past studies concluded weight loss surgery is an effective treatment for obesity, but there is not a lot of data regarding the long-lasting effects of such surgeries. This is a notable study because researchers followed patients for 10 years after their surgeries.
The research team for the two-part study examined results from 1,800 people who underwent gastric bypass surgery. The team compared weight changes from this group to weight changes of 5,300 obese veterans who had not undergone any formal weight-loss treatment or surgery.
Gastric bypass surgery is a procedure that reduces the size of the stomach and adjusting the small intestine so much of it is bypassed in digestion. People who have this surgery feel full much more quickly than normal. In addition, gastric bypass appears to change gut bacteria, gut hormones, and metabolism.
One year into the study, individuals who had undergone bypass surgery had lost on average 31 percent of their body weight. Non-surgical participants lost an average of 1 percent. A decade after the study began, researchers were able to review data from 564 of the 1,800 initial patients. Only 19 patients had regained significant weight. The surgery group weighed 21 percent less than the non-surgical group.
The researchers then compared adjustable gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy, and gastric bypass surgeries. Gastric banding involves placing a band at the top of the stomach to produce a pouch and reduce the stomach size. The sleeve gastrectomy involves removing much of the stomach and creating a banana-shaped sleeve. All three of these procedures result in patients feeling fuller faster.
Four years post-surgery, people who had gastric bypass had reduced their weight by 28 percent, sleeve gastrecomy patients 18 percent, gastric banding 11 percent.
Most participants were white and male. They averaged 52 years in age.
JAMA Surgery published the study Aug. 31, 2016.
The study reveals that gastric bypass produces more weight loss than the other two weight loss surgeries, and that the weight loss could be sustained over a long term.
All other things being equal, the gastric bypass surgery seems to be the best option for significant, long-term weight loss.
Labels: weight loss surgery
"Unloading" shoes have modified midsoles and are meant to reduce the load, or force, placed on the knee joint with each step, according to the manufacturer of the shoes.
A study out of Australia focused on the Gel Melbourne OA, made by Asics, and concluded they were no better at relieving arthritis pain than standard shoes.
According to researchers, the unloading shoes do significantly reduce the forces on the knee joint, but wearers of the shoes did not report more pain relief with the modified shoes when compared to regular shoes.
Both the unloading shoes and standard shoes improved physical function and created significant pain relief among study participants; this led the researchers to question whether supportive lace-up athletic shoes should become the recommended footwear.
Knee osteoarthritis results in the wearing away of knee cartilage over time. This leads to stiffness, swelling, and pain around the joint that can impede a person's ability to walk, climb, or even complete tasks they do every day. It is most common after age 60.
There is no cure, so treatment focuses on lifestyle. Doctors recommend low-impact exercise like swimming, as well as maintaining a healthy weight or losing weight if necessary. In addition, if any activity becomes painful, it's best to avoid it if possible.
Anti-inflammatory medications, ice, heat, and pain relief creams may also provide relief. In addition, physical therapy can help improve mobility and flexibility by strengthening the surrounding muscle groups, among other things. In more severe cases, patients may undergo surgery—from partial or total joint replacement to joint-lining removal.
Some clinicians may also suggest the use of a knee brace, a cane, or new shoes such as standard walking shoes. The manufacturer says unloading shoes include shock-absorbing inserts as well as stiffer-than-normal soles. These modifications aim to reposition the foot and reduce the load on the knee. It encourages pronation, or an inward roll of the foot.
This study involved 160 knee arthritis patients over the age of 49. They were split into two groups and randomly assigned to wear conventional Asics shoes or the Asics Gel Melbourne OA.
After six months, roughly 54 percent of each group reported improved pain levels. Forty-four percent of the unloading group reported improved physical function compared to 48 percent of the conventional Asics group.