World Management System for Disease Control

In December 2012, a two-year-old boy in Meliandou, Guinea, became sick and died just a few days later. Within a week, his mother, sister and grandmother were all dead too. Several of those who attended the funerals along with a healthcare worker also became ill. By March, dozens had become sick and died, and the disease had spread from the little border town to nearby Liberia and Sierra Leone. Only then did authorities realize what they were seeing: ebola.

Over the past year, the world has watched in horror as the virus swept across the west African countries and killed nearly half of those it infected. The virus had never before been seen in this region, and the areas in which it first struck were torn by civil unrest. Impoverished as they were, their health infrastructures were weak and damaged. Doctors in Guinea had never seen an illness like this before, and neither the governments nor the international public health community recognized the ominous early signs that a devastating epidemic with terrifyingly high mortality rates was about to kill more than 10,000 men, women and children.

The international response was unprecedented once the killer was identified as ebola, and these efforts helped get the outbreak under control. However, the fast spread of the disease as it went unrecognized and the number of lives lost revealed critical weakness in the global public health system. According to a recent paper published in the online journal “PLOS Medicine,” earlier recognition and a more aggressive response may have significantly lessened the toll.

The paper’s authors, who were experts from Massachusetts General Hospital Center for Global Health and the O’Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law at Georgetown University, made several recommendations for addressing future public health emergencies, including closer attention to health system capabilities in affected regions, early identification of the need for international assistance, maintaining close communication with local authorities and organizations, developing culturally appropriate treatments and processes, strengthening ties with communities, ensuring adequate financial and human resources are available and supporting the development of stronger health infrastructure in underdeveloped and developing countries.

Learning how to better implement a public health response and reach those who most need help with the medications and treatments that could save their lives may help prevent the spread of infections and diseases and protect future populations.

Size of Space?

Our fascination with space is something that has been well recorded for many decades. The universe is obviously a vast place, and we still don't know for sure exactly how big it is. However, we are finding out more all the time about the universe via space stations and unmanned satellites that take pictures of what's out there in the world beyond planet Earth. It is a truly fascinating topic and it seems the more we learn about it the more we want to learn more.

How many of us look up to the skies every day or night and wonder about what's out there? Looking at the stars and thinking about what could be beyond them is certainly an interesting topic that definitely leads to more questions. And the beauty that we see when we look at pictures or through the powerful lens of a telescope cannot be ignored. Even pictures from the most inhabitable planets have a certain sense of grace. And no one can deny the breathtaking yet serene elegance of the galactic disk photographs that are captured by powerful high resolution cameras. These disks are created by gas and light from the stars and the visuals that result are pure artistry by the universe.

There are so many television shows and movies about the universe and the stars and planets that it's almost impossible to keep track of them all. It is a topic that is almost an obsession of those who love science fiction. Most of us, at one point or another have wondered about life beyond the planet we live on. The popularity of the Star Wars movie franchise and the television show Star Trek (and the movies adapted from that series) has only grown in the years since they first debuted.

It should come as no surprise that a recent study of the Milky Way shows its bigger than we thought. In fact, the general public can't even imagine the size of the universe, mostly because scientists and researchers don't have the capacity to truly measure it. It is a topic that has been talked about and debate for years, and those talks aren't going to end anytime soon.

Tai Chi

Tai chi was originally designed for self-defense, but it has become an increasingly popular form of exercise. It is particularly beneficial for those who are elderly and is popular for stress reduction but can be enjoyable and healthy at any age. Movements are gentle and flowing, and you will breathe deeply throughout the exercises and stretching. Many people experience reduced anxiety, increased energy, improved flexibility, enhanced strength and greater aerobic capacity as a result. Participating in this workout regularly may also help boost immune function, improve quality of sleep, decrease arthritis pain and improve overall well-being.

Getting Started

If you are pregnant or you have joint, back or other health problems, talk to your doctor first to make sure this is the best choice for you. Many communities, fitness centers and health club offer classes that can help you get started. The workout includes specific poses performed with a grace not unlike that associated with dance. Movements are gentle and circular in nature, and your muscles are never forced beyond their limits. The meditation that accompanies tai chi helps you stay mindful of your body.

The Philosophy

Although many people enjoy these movements solely for their physical benefits, the original workout was based on specific philosophies. Qi, or your body’s energy force, is believed to flow throughout your body but can become blocked. The movements are said to unblock and improve the ability of qi to flow freely and without obstruction. Additionally, it is believed to balance your yin and yang, opposing elements that can contribute to problems when imbalanced.

The Benefits

Studies show that this amazing exercise can be used in conjunction with standard treatments for treating and rehabilitating common age-related problems. It can be used to combat symptoms, improve function and increase a patient’s quality of life. It has been proven effective for improving upper and lower body strength and flexibility and has been shown to reduce falls by improving balance and coordination.

Milk Consumption and Fracture Risk

Most of us have been told for years that drinking milk was good for us. We were told the calcium builds strong bones that would be less likely to fracture. It is a known fact that a diet rich in dairy products is promoted to reduce likelihood of osteoporosis relate fractures. However, the latest medicine studies suggest otherwise. New research points out that dairy may actually lead your body to become more acidic. The big deal about this is that when your body is in an acidic state it actually pulls important nutrients and minerals (such as calcium) from your bones, therefore making them more brittle.

Other studies have shown that in countries that diary intake was high so was the incidence of fractures. So what if there's actually something to the theory that high intake of milk may be associated with higher risk of fractures? The truth is, there are plenty of other sources of calcium instead of milk. And there are plenty of people who do not eat or drink any dairy products - such as those who are lactose intolerant or those who have made a conscious decision to a certain type of dietary lifestyle, such as being a vegan. Vegans follow a plant based diet - they do not eat meat or dairy.

Bones need more than just mere calcium to be healthy and strong. They also need protein and potassium and other vitamins and minerals. You can get all of those substances without ingesting any dairy at all. And also keep in mind that lifestyle choices such as being physically active instead of sedentary also helps keeps bones strong. People who exercise regularly have strong bones and muscles. Women who exercise regularly can help reduce their chances of developing osteoporosis and arthritis.

Another recent development shows that there's a higher rate of death in both genders of people who are considered to have high consumption levels of milk. So it stands to reason to seek out what is healthy and what's not regarding your particular situation. Talk to your doctor and do your own research. Consider the sources before making any decisions and definitely make an informed decision about what goes into your body and what doesn't. After all, your health depends on it.

The Why Behind Muscle Soreness

Hard workouts are notorious for causing DOMS, or delayed onset muscle soreness. When you exercise strenuously, small micro tears occur in your muscle fibers. This is more common when a muscle is repeated stretched and stressed, such as occurs when weight-lifting or engaging in plyometric workouts. When you finish your workout, you may feel tired but otherwise fine.

However over the next few days, your body starts rebuilding itself. The inflammation associated with this breaking-down-and-building-up process can lead to muscle aches, stiffness and tenderness. You may feel sore or uncomfortable with certain movements. The soreness cause by inflammation within the muscle during cycle can last for twenty four to forty eight hours, gradually tapering off. As your muscle fibers heal and rebuild, they will be creating new, stronger muscle fiber.

While DOMS can be uncomfortable at best, it does not have to keep you from getting the results you want from your workouts. Avoid doing back-to-back workouts, and let each group of muscles rest between tough workouts. You don’t have to lounge on the couch to get the rest you need, and in fact, too much rest can actually delay recovery. Instead, try to stay active with low-intensity workouts, which can boost blood flow to sore areas. Stretching gently when you work out will keep the muscles limber and comfortable. You may consider working different muscle groups on different days to maintain your progress while still resting the sore areas. Try a natural anti-inflammatory to soothe your aching muscles. Tart cherry juice is an excellent option that may also help minimize pain.

If your muscle acts stiff or the pain persists for more than a few days, is strong enough to interfere with your daily activities, worsens rather than improves or is accompanied by other symptoms, contact your doctor. You may have a mild strain or sprain that would benefit from RICE, or rest, ice, compression and elevation. In most cases, though, post-workout discomfort is DOMS, Instead of fighting it, rest easy knowing that muscle soreness is a sign of a job well done. Your body is simply getting stronger and fitter. Within a few weeks, you won't just be able to feel the results; you will also start to see them.

Top Cause of Stress In The US

Stress is unfortunately part of almost every adult's life. There are many different types of stressors that cause people to lose sleep and worry. One of the biggest causes is related to finances. Money is one of the most recurring themes of what people worry about in the USA. In fact, one in three people worry more about potential financial issues - not making enough money, not being able to pay off debt, and losing their jobs more than almost anything else. That's a high percent of people that are all worried about the same thing.

Many of us wonder what we'll do if something unexpected occurs, such as the loss of a job, property damage, or some type of accident. How will we make ends meet? Will we lose our homes? Unexpected costs associated with home ownership and medical expenses are very common. After all, accidents can happen at any time. Who expects their furnace to go out? Or for a leak in the pipes to cause a ceiling or floor to cave in? No one. But unfortunately, those things do happen. And illness related expenses are particularly frightening. What if insurance doesn't handle a certain type of treatment we need? How will we scrape together the money to pay for it? What if we sustain injuries that cause us to be unable to make an income for an extended period of time?

Sometimes our fear of financial repercussions will keep us from helping someone out who may need it. After all, donating or lending someone a large sum of cash most likely means making your nest egg that much smaller. But if you know someone who's going through something big at at the moment, don't think you have to make a grand gesture and swoop in to save the day. Most people in crisis mode are just happy to have someone to help with the essentials, such as a groceries or helping them out with childcare issues. Even buying someone a tank of gas is a deed that can go along away during times of financial stress.

And while it can be hard to save for the future, we shouldn't beat ourselves up over it so much. Instead, look at your budget and see where you can make cuts. Trying packing your lunch more. See about lowering your interest on your credit card bill. Do you really need that cable package with five hundred channels? You have the ability to gain control over your finances and therefore let go of some of the fear and uncertainty that may be keeping you up at night.

Smart Phone Diagnosing HIV

HIV testing has gotten increasingly more simple and accessible in recent years. And the next big push might just be as simple as attaching a gadget to your cell phone. The technology is a cheaper and quicker alternative to the typical ELISA testing in a lab, which can cost thousands of dollars. This test can detect the virus in its early stages. Detection during the earliest stages, especially in pregnant women, can help them avoid passing the condition to their babies. This can be extremely important in the decrease spreading the disease.

This test uses a simple blood kit that includes a finger stick. The kit can attach to a smart phone. It only costs around 30 dollars. Results can be read a few minutes later via an app on the phone. This type of technology is very similar to more expensive tests, and coming back with false positives has been known to happen. People who receive a positive result should go seek more testing and medical treatment as soon as possible. Doctors and researchers have found those who seek treatment and take the medications at the earliest possible stage often live longer and have better quality of life than those who do not.

While it's true that a diagnosis of HIV used to be thought of as a death sentence, that type of thinking certainly isn't the norm anymore. Advances in anti-virals and other medications along with advice regarding lifestyle changes have made a huge difference in the lives of those affective by this disease. People are now leading longer and healthier lives than they were even 10 or 20 years ago. And stopping the spread of disease through awareness and education can drop the numbers of those who might otherwise become infected.

Although this new technology shows promise, more time is needed to make sure it's developed properly. And by doing more research we may be able to reduce the risk of future generations being affected. This type of testing can cut down the risk and make it easier for diagnosis and treatment. And that is something that is definitely well worth the fight.

What Does Being Neurotic Exactly Mean?

We've all heard expressions such as "she's being neurotic," and it usually refers to someone we may consider to be a bit high strung or having anxiety, anger, or depression issues. What that means is they have a condition that derives from a medical condition neurosis, which is more common they we may think.

Many times we consider certain behaviors of our co-workers, significant others,friends, or family members to be somewhat off kilter or unsettling and we may wonder why they act the way they do. The term neurosis can actually include many different conditions. The term was originally described as a disorder of sense and motion. It usually does not refer to disorders that include delusions or severe mental confusion. Another term for it now is social phobia. Examples include obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, and sadness. A century ago some of these conditions were also described as "hysteria".

All of these disorders can be very difficult to live with. Some of them might be treated with therapy and medications. Many times the therapy focuses on what triggers certain types of behaviors and how to cope with them in a more healthy manner. It can take some people years to recover from a social phobia disorder. Most triggers involve some type of extreme stress, usually a life changing event such as a death, divorce, or any type of large upheaval or change.

Having a neurotic disorder can be a type of ego defense mechanism. It can cause irritability and a low sense of self worth. Those issues can be extremely difficult to live with. If you or a family member, friend, or co-worker may be suffering from some type of neuroses, do your best to get them to seek treatment. Many times people don't understand their behaviors and don't know how to change them. Some people may deny they have a problem. That is normal, as most of us don't want to be labeled as having some type of mental or emotional issue that can be construed as being weak or unstable. However, making that first step and getting a diagnosis and the appropriate treatment will be more helpful than pretending something isn't wrong and letting affect your life and the lives of others around you.

Coming To Terms With a Diagnosed Medical Condition

Coming to terms with a diagnosed medical condition certainly isn't something we want to contend with in our lives. Unfortunately, it does happen. A diagnosis that has an adverse effect on our overall health can be difficult to accept and adapt to. But coming to terms with what we are not about to change about life and what we can is all about our frame of mind. At first, the initial diagnosis may be met with shock, then denial. That's normal, and everybody deals with it in their own time. But after that initial shock wears off, it is your responsibility to be proactive.

Being told that you have a serious condition or illness is obviously very frightening. It means our future is uncertain and we often aren't sure what we're going to endure. However, one of the best things to do is some simple research. First of all, get a second opinion. Learn as much as you can about the course of the disease, treatment options, and how to deal with the every day realities of living with a difficult diagnosis. Join a support group. Don't bottle your feelings, because that isn't healthy for you mentally or emotionally. And don't be fooled into thinking that your mental and emotional health can't effect your physical health, because all of that goes together.

After you accept what you're not able to change there's bound to be some ups and downs. Don't forget that's normal. And even though you might not be able to control the outcome, you'll probably feel better peace of mind when you educate yourself and learn more about what you're up against. Again, this is where talking to friends and family will help. If you're not comfortable joining a support group then think about seeking some one on one counseling. People who feel like they have a strong support system often report feeling better than those who don't feel like they have people to lean on.

One last piece of advice: remember that it takes time to heal. Rome wasn't built in a day, and your recovery may not be as quick as you'd like. Sometimes it may feel as if its a "two steps forward and three steps back" process. Just keep doing what you can to move forward.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Possible Diagnosis for The Daily Exhausted

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease that causes severe daily fatigue. Unlike feeling tired at the end of a long day, even after rest no improvement, and this feeling of exhaustion can last for many months or years and may be powerful enough to interfere with your daily routine. Getting a diagnosis can be difficult for some, but it can also help you find the answers you seek and get relief.


You may have no will to do much, and symptoms may worsen with physical activity. Many people also experience muscle pain, headaches, pain from one joint to another, tender lymph nodes, sore throat, sleep problems, unrefreshed sleep and loss of memory.


Doctors do not fully understand what causes CFS, but some believe that age, health history, viral infections, stress, environmental factors and genetics can all play a role. It is most commonly diagnosed in women who are between 30 and 50 years old.

Tests and Treatments

There are no specific medical tests for chronic fatigue syndrome. However, the CDC has listed specific signs and symptoms that can be evaluated, and your doctor may diagnose CFS after ruling out other health issues such as immune system disorders, muscle or nerve diseases, infections, hormonal imbalance and endocrine diseases.

Treatment is generally focused on alleviating symptoms. Your doctor may prescribe medications for depression or anxiety and recommend cognitive behavioral therapy and graded exercises. A balanced diet, healthy sleep habits and lifestyle changes can all be beneficial. Avoid overdoing it on days that you feel tired or relying on caffeine over consumption, which can leave you feeling more tired. Break large tasks into smaller tasks, and spread them out over the week as needed.

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a complicated disorder, and different factors can play a role in your long-term prognosis. Keeping track of symptoms when starting to see a pattern can help when seeing a doctor. If you see no improvement with your current treatment regimen, talk to your doctor about trying new things or adjusting your treatment plan.